Pope Innocent III has long been seen as a central figure in the history of the medieval papacy. The Imperial struggle, on which attention has most often focused, is not, however, Brenda Bolton’s direct concern in these articles; she has rather sought to uncover the spiritual motivation of Innocent’s mission as pope. The first item, newly written for this volume, brings out the importance to Innocent of the physical context of Rome - as the City of the Faith. The following studies look at his exercise of papal authority: first, as Bishop of Rome, to establish a position from which to implement reform; then in relation to secular powers and, in particular, to the establishment of the Cistercian Order. The second section turns to the theme of pastoral care, showing Innocent’s concern for the needy and, more generally, emphasizing his generous response to those accused of heresy - his aim being to include, not exclude, and to channel popular enthusiasms to the benefit of the Church and Rome.